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Venipuncture Vocabulary Quiz Flash Cards

 

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Memorize the Language of Venipuncture! 
 
 
 
Phlebotomy Term (memorize) Definition (memorize)
ABG Arterial Blood Gas test which analyses arterial blood for oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate content in addition to blood pH. Used to test the effectiveness of respiration.
Anearobic Growing, living or occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen; pertaining to an anaerobe. As in phlebotomy, the drawing of blood cultures for the purpose of possible isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria.
Antecubital That part of the arm opposing the elbow.
Anticoagulant Anticoagulant solutions used for the preservation of stored whole blood and blood fractions are acid citrate dextrose (ACD), citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD), citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (cPDA 1) and heparin. Anticoagulants used to prevent clotting of blood specimens for laboratory analysis are heparin and several substances that make calcium ions unavailable to the clotting process, including EDTA (ethylenediamintetraacetic acid), citrate and oxalate.
Antiseptic Something that discourages the growth microorganisms. By contrast, aseptic refers to the absence of microorganisms.
Arterial blood Blood contained within the arteries and which carries oxygen from the heart and lungs to outlying organs and tissues.
Asepsis The absence of microorganisms. By contrast, something that just discourages the growth of microorganisms is antiseptic.
Aspirate

The material that is withdrawn with a negative pressure apparatus (syringe).

Basilic vein

Large vein on the inner side of the biceps. Often chosen for intravenous injections and blood drawing.

Betadine

A popular trade name iodine-containing topical antiseptic agent; povidone-iodine.

Blind stick

Performing a venipuncture with no apparently visible or palpable vein. Though this technique is discouraged, it is occasionally necessary requiring a skilled phlebotomist who is experienced and well versed in vascular anatomy.

Blood

The fluid in the body that contains red cells and white cells as well as platelets, proteins, plasma and other elements. It is transported throughout the body by the circulatory system.

Blood cell

One of three main types of small cell corpuscles in the blood stream, red and, white blood cells, and platelets.

Arterial blood

The means by which oxygen and nutrients are transported to tissues.

Venous blood

The means by which carbon dioxide and metabolic by-products are transported for excretion.

Blood clot

The conversion of blood from a liquid form to solid through the process of coagulation.

Thrombus

 A clot which forms inside of a blood vessel. If that clot moves inside the vessel it is referred to as an embolus.

Blood culture

A test which involves the incubation of a blood specimen overnight to determine if bacteria are present. Blood is collected in a special media which enhances the growth of both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.

Bloodborne pathogens

Germs which are present in the blood stream and which may be passed on to others.

Butterfly needle

A small needle with two plastic wings attached which are squeezed together to form a tab that is used to manipulate the needle. A long 6-12" plastic tubing is attached which again offers better manipulation. This assembly is then attached to a syringe or Vacutainer® holder for the purpose of drawing a blood sample.

Centrifuge

A laboratory apparatus that separates mixed samples into homogenous component layers by spinning them at high speed.

Circulation

The movement of fluid in a regular or circuitous course. Although the noun "circulation" does not necessarily refer to the circulation of the blood, for all practical purposes today it does. Heart failure is an example of a problem with the circulation.

Citrate

A compound that is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). Citrate chelates (binds) calcium ions, preventing blood clotting and thus, is an effective anticoagulant.

Citrate Phosphate Dextrose (CPD)

An anticoagulant.

 


ABG (ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS) 
A test which analyses arterial blood for oxygen, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate content in addition to blood pH. Used to test the effectiveness of respiration. 

ANAEROBIC 
Growing, living or occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen; pertaining to an anaerobe. As in phlebotomy, the drawing of blood cultures for the purpose of possible isolation and identification of anaerobic bacteria. 

ANTECUBITAL 
That part of the arm opposing the elbow. 

ANTICOAGULANT 
Anticoagulant solutions used for the preservation of stored whole blood and blood fractions are acid citrate dextrose (ACD), citrate phosphate dextrose (CPD), citrate phosphate dextrose adenine (cPDA 1) and heparin. Anticoagulants used to prevent clotting of blood specimens for laboratory analysis are heparin and several substances that make calcium ions unavailable to the clotting process, including EDTA (ethylenediamintetraacetic acid), citrate and oxalate. 

ANTISEPTIC 
Something that discourages the growth microorganisms. By contrast, aseptic refers to the absence of microorganisms. 

ARTERIAL BLOOD 
Blood contained within the arteries and which carries oxygen from the heart and lungs to outlying organs and tissues. 

ASEPTIC 
The absence of microorganisms. By contrast, something that just discourages the growth of microorganisms is antiseptic. 

ASPIRATE 
The material that is withdrawn with a negative pressure apparatus (syringe). 

BASILIC VEIN 
Large vein on the inner side of the biceps. Often chosen for intravenous injections and blood drawing. 

BETADINE 
A popular trade name iodine-containing topical antiseptic agent; povidone-iodine. 

BLIND STICK 
Performing a venipuncture with no apparently visible or palpable vein. Though this technique is discouraged, it is occasionally necessary requiring a skilled phlebotomist who is experienced and well versed in vascular anatomy. 

BLOOD 
The fluid in the body that contains red cells and white cells as well as platelets, proteins, plasma and other elements. It is transported throughout the body by the Circulatory System. Arterial blood is the means by which oxygen and nutrients are transported to tissues, venous blood is the means by which carbon dioxide and metabolic by-products are transported for excretion. 

BLOOD CELL 
There are three main types of cell in the blood stream. The red cell, which carries oxygen, the white cell, which fights infections and the platelet, which helps prevent bleeding. The correct balance between each cell type must be maintained for the body to remain healthy. 

BLOOD CLOT 
The conversion of blood from a liquid form to solid through the process of coagulation. A thrombus is a clot which forms inside of a blood vessel. If that clot moves inside the vessel it is referred to as an embolus (embolism). 

BLOOD CULTURE 
A test which involves the incubation of a blood specimen overnight to determine if bacteria are present. Blood is collected in a special media which enhances the growth of both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. 

BLOODBORNE PATHOGEN 
Pathogens which are present in the blood stream and which may be passed to others. 

BUTTERFLY 
A small needle with two plastic wings attached which are squeezed together to form a tab that is used to manipulate the needle. A long 6-12" plastic tubing is attached which again offers better manipulation. This assembly is then attached to a syringe or Vacutainer® holder for the purpose of drawing a blood sample. 

CENTRIFUGE 
A laboratory apparatus that separates mixed samples into homogenous component layers by spinning them at high speed. 

CIRCULATION 
The movement of fluid in a regular or circuitous course. Although the noun "circulation" does not necessarily refer to the circulation of the blood, for all practical purposes today it does. Heart failure is an example of a problem with the circulation. 

CITRATE 
A compound that is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle). Citrate chelates (binds) calcium ions, preventing blood clotting and, thus, is an effective anticoagulant. 

CITRATE PHOSPHATE DEXTROSE (CPD) 
An anticoagulant. 

CLOT 
A semisolid mass of blood found inside or outside the body. 

COAGULATE 
The process of clot formation 

COAGULATION FACTORS 
Group of plasma protein substances (Factor I-XIII) contained in the plasma, which act together to bring about blood coagulation. 

COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT (CBC) 
The number of red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets (per cubic millimeter) that are present in the patient’s sample of blood is determined. Also included is the hematocrit (%), hemoglobin concentration (gm%) and the differential. Most common test done on the blood. 

CONTAMINATION 
The soiling or pollution by inferior material, as by the introduction of organisms into a wound. 

COUMADIN 
Trademark for the preparation of warfarin sodium 

DIAPHORETIC 
Formation of profuse perspiration (sweat). A symptom of syncope. 

DIFFERENTIAL 
A count made on a stained blood smear of the proportion of the different leukocytes (WBC's) and expressed as a percentage. A differential is a normal part of a complete blood count (CBC). 

ECCHYMOSIS 
The skin discoloration caused by a bruise (contusion). 

EDEMA 
The swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess water accumulation. It is often more prominent in the lower legs and feet toward the end of the day as a result of pooling of fluid from the upright position maintained during the day. Development of collateral circulation will result in a reduction of water accumulation. 

EDTA 
Ethylenediaminetetraacetate. A calcium chelating (binding) agent that is used as an anticoagulant for laboratory blood specimens. 

ELECTROLYTE 
A substance that will acquire the capacity to conduct electricity when put into solution. Electrolytes include sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium and phosphate. Informally called "lytes". 

EMBOLUS 
A sudden blockage of a blood vessel by a blood clot or some other obstruction which has been transported through blood vessels and lodged at a site too small for passage. Examples of emboli are a detached blood clot, a clump of bacteria, or other foreign material, such as air. Contrast to thrombus. 

ERYTHROCYTE 
Cells that carry oxygen to all parts of the body. 

FACTOR VIII 
One of a number of coagulation factors. Classic hemophilia (hemophilia A) is due to a congenital deficiency in the amount (or activity) of factor VIII. The gene for factor VIII (that for classic hemophilia) is on the X chromosome so females can be silent carriers without symptoms and males can be hemophiliacs. 

FASTING 
Without eating. A number of laboratory tests are performed on "fasting" blood specimens such as sugar (glucose) levels. Specimens are usually taken after overnight fasting. 

FIBRIN 
The protein formed during normal blood clotting that is the essence of the clot. 

FIBRINOGEN 
The protein from which fibrin is formed/generated in normal blood clotting. 

FLASH-BACK 
Relative to venipuncture, the appearance of a small amount of blood in the neck of a syringe or the tubing of a butterfly. This is a sign that the vein has been properly accessed. 

GAUGE 
Needle diameter is measured by gauge; the larger the needle diameter, the smaller the gauge. 
For example: 
21 gauge (yellow) used primarily for large antecubital veins 
23 gauge (green) for smaller antecubitals, medium size forearm, hand and foot veins 
25 gauge (black) only for the smallest veins, usually in the forearm, hand and foot 

GERMICIDE 
An agent that kills pathogenic microorganisms. 

GLUCOSE 
The sugar measured in blood and urine specimens to determine the presence or absence of diabetes. Glucose is the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and is the chief source of energy for all living organisms. 

HEPARIN 
An anticoagulant that acts to inhibit a number of coagulation factors, especially factor Xa. Heparin is formed in the liver. 

HEMATOCRIT 
The ratio of the total red blood cell volume to the total blood volume and expressed as a percentage. 

HEMATOMA 
A localized collection of blood within tissue due to leakage from the wall of a blood vessel, producing a bluish discoloration (ecchymosis)and pain. 

HEMOCONCENTRATION 
A decrease in the fluid content of the blood (plasma), resulting in an increase in concentration. This is determined by an increase in the hematocrit. Caused by a filtration of plasma into body tissues and often created by dehydration. 

HEMOGLOBIN 
The oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells. 

HEMOLYSE 
The breaking of the red blood cells membrane releasing free hemoglobin into the circulating blood. In phlebotomy, this is usually the result of mechanical damage due to poor technique. 

HEPARIN 
An anticoagulant that acts to inhibit a number of coagulation factors, especially factor Xa. Heparin is formed in the liver. 

HYPODERMIC NEEDLE 
A needle that attaches to a syringe for the purpose of injections or withdrawal of fluids such as blood. 

LPT 
LPT are lipid/triglycerides. 

LYMPHEDEMA 
Lymphedema is a type of swelling which occurs in lymphatic tissue when excess fluid collects in the arms or legs because the lymph nodes or vessels are blocked or removed. Regarding phlebotomy, this can be a major complication of mastectomies. 

MULTI-SAMPLE ADAPTER 
A device used with a butterfly and Vacutainer® holder to allow for the withdrawal of multiple tubes of blood during a venipuncture. 

ORDER OF DELIVERY 
A term used to define the order in which tubes should be filled with blood after being drawn by syringe. 

ORDER OF DRAW 
Terminology used to define the order in which blood sample tubes should be drawn using a multi-sample technique such as the Vacutainer® System. 

OXYHEMOGLOBIN 
Hemoglobin that has been bound with oxygen in the lungs for the purpose of transport of oxygen to cells of the body. In the cells oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. 

PALPATE 
To examine or feel by the hand. In relation to venipuncture, this technique is used to "feel" a vein which will tend to rebound when slight pressure is applied with the finger. The technique is used to help determine the size, depth and direction of a vein. In relation to arterial punctures, this technique is used to determine the position and depth of an artery (see pulse) 

PATHOGEN 
Any microorganism that produces disease. 

PATHOGENIC 
Having the capability of producing disease. 

PERIPHERAL BLOOD 
Blood obtained from the circulation away from the heart, such as from the fingertip, heel pad, earlobe or from an antecubital vein. 

pH 
The symbol used to depict the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution, i.e. acidity. pH 7.0 is neutral; above 7.0 is alkaline, below is acid. 

PIPET 
A glass or transparent plastic tube used to accurately measure small amounts of liquid. 

PLASMA 
The fluid portion of the blood in which the cellular components are suspended. Plasma is different from serum! 

PLATELETS 
Also known as a thrombocyte, this is a particulate component of the blood, approximately 2-4 microns in diameter and known for its involvement in blood coagulation. This structure, which has no nucleus or DNA, is formed by breaking off from the cytoplasm of the parent cell, known as a megakaryocyte in the bone marrow. Under normal conditions, platelets will aggregate at the site of a break in vascular integrity, forming the beginning stages of a clot. Normal platelet counts range from 150,000-450,000/cm³. 

POVIDONE-IODINE 
Used as a topical antiseptic, this is a compound made by reacting iodine with povidone which slowly releases iodine. Same as Betadine . 

RED BLOOD CELLS (RBC) 
One of the solid components of the blood which is normally a biconcave disc with no nucleus. This is the component of the blood that contains hemoglobin which is responsible for oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. A red cell count is performed as part of a complete blood count and ranges from 4,500,000-5,000,000 RBC's per cubic millimeter. 

SCLEROSIS 
A hardening; especially from inflammation and certain disease states. Though sclerosis may occur in many areas of the body, the term is most often associated with blood vessels. 

SERUM 
Referring to blood, the clear liquid portion of blood that separates out after clotting has taken place. Since clotting has occurred, serum is fibrinogen deficient. Contrast to plasma. 

TG 
Triglycerides (TG) are the most important of three groups of neutral fats. 

TOURNIQUET 
In regards to venipuncture, a constrictive band, placed over an extremity to distend veins for the purpose of blood aspiration or intravenous injections. Materials used may be rubber, latex or other synthetic elastic material. A blood pressure cuff may also be used. 

VACUTAINER™ 
Vacutainer is a federally and internationally registered trademark owned by BD (Becton, Dickinson and Company) that is used in connection with a complete system of tubes, needles and needle holders, sharps collectors, and safety devices in blood collection. The Vacutainer evacuated tube, for example, automatically aspirates the correct amount of blood into a tube. It is used instead of a syringe. Despite of the fact that BD owns the Vacutainer trademark, the term has become so widely used to describe similar blood collection tubes and devices, that it has become a generically used term. 

VACUTAINER™ HOLDER 
A cylindrical shaped holder that accepts a Vacutainer tube on one end and a Vacutainer needle on the other. The holder, tube and needle comprise the Vacutainer System, used to draw multiple tubes of blood with one venipuncture. 

VACUTAINER™ NEEDLE 
The needle used to attach to a Vacutainer holder. The needle has a male thread on one end which screws into the holder. The threaded end also has a large gauge needle, enclosed by a rubber sheath. This needle will puncture the stopper of a Vacutainer tube allowing blood to enter the tube. Upon withdrawal of this needle from the tube, the rubber sheath covers the needle bevel, stopping the flow of blood. Thus, any number of tubes may be drawn with only a single venipuncture. 

VACUTAINER™ SYSTEM 
The combination of a Vacutainer holder, needle and sample tube which allows for a more automated method of drawing blood. When a multi-sample needle is used the system will allow for the aspiration of any number of sample tubes with only one venipuncture. 

VACUTAINER™ TUBE 
Blood sample tubes containing a vacuum. When the tube stopper is pierced by a Vacutainer needle which has been properly positioned in a vein, the vacuum draws blood into the tube. 

VEIN 
Blood vessels carrying blood to the heart. Blood contained within these vessels is generally bound with carbon dioxide which will be exchanged for oxygen in the lungs. The presence of carbon dioxide and the absence of oxygen accounts for the dark red appearance of the blood in venous circulation. The only exception to this is the pulmonary vein which is the vein returning to the heart from the lungs, this time with oxygenated blood (no carbon dioxide). 

VENIPUNCTURE 
The puncture of a vein for any purpose. 

VENOUS 
Pertaining to the veins, or blood passing through them. 

VENOUS BLOOD 
Blood contained within the veins. 

WARFARIN SODIUM 
The sodium salt of warfarin, one of the synthetic coumarin anticoagulants. Coumadin 

WHITE BLOOD CELL 
Also leukocyte. A variety of cells within the blood and bone marrow whose general purpose is to help in fighting infection. Each type is differentiated by use of a stained preparation (see differential) and is separated based on how the cells and their components take up the stain. The five general cells thus distinguished are neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eosinophils all of which are nucleated cells. 

WHITE CELL COUNT 
The number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the peripheral blood and measured per cubic millimeter. See also complete blood count. 

WHOLE BLOOD 
Blood from which none of the elements have been removed. It is usually referred to as that blood, collected from a donor and anticoagulated for the purpose of blood replenishment for a recipient.  
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